"With the customer hunkered down in his or her mental foxhole, it becomes harder and harder to score a hit in our overcommunicated society. With volume up and effectiveness down, advertising has become the focus of intensive research.
"Consider the facts. Most major advertising programs that run are tested. They don't run if they don't test exceptionally well.
"Yet most advertising is ineffective. Mathematically, that has to be true. In a given market four or five brands will develop marketing programs designed to increase market share. Yet on average, no one will increase market share, which in total remains at 100 percent.
Al Ries and Jack Trout
Bottom-Up Marketing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981. pages 152, 154, 194, 195.
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